Cardiovascular and metabolic risk in pediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency.

C.F. Mooij, A.E. van Herwaarden, F.C.G.J. Sweep, N. Roeleveld, C.L. de Korte, L. Kapusta and H.L. Claahsen-van der Grinten

Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM 2017;30:957-966



The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in pediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). A cross-sectional study was performed in 27 CAH patients (8-16 years). Blood samples were taken to evaluate circulating cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers. Insulin resistance (IR) was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR. Blood pressure (BP) was evaluated by office BP measurements and 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (24-h ABPM). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in patients >12 years. Body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) was elevated (0.67), with seven patients being overweight and four obese. DXA scans showed percentage body fat SDS of 1.59. Office BP levels were higher than reference values. Twenty-four hour ABPM showed systolic hypertension (n=5), while 11 patients had a non-dipping BP profile. HOMA-IR was >75th percentile in 12 patients. CAH patients develop an unfavorable CVR profile already in childhood with increased BMI, increased fat mass, elevated BP levels, a non-dipping BP profile and IR compared to population reference values.