Paediatric Ebstein's anomaly: how clinical presentation predicts mortality.

L. Geerdink, T. Delhaas, W. Helbing, G. du Marchie Sarvaas, H. Heide, L. Rozendaal, C. de Korte, P. Peer, I. Kuipers and L. Kapusta




Forecasting the prognosis of a child when diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly is difficult. We, therefore, studied which factors at the time of diagnosis are associated with death during childhood. All consecutive patients (0-18 years) diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2014 were included. Survival curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. By using the Cox proportional hazard model, we analysed the factors (at diagnosis) that were associated with death. We included 176 patients. Thirty-one patients (18%) died before the age of 18 years. The 1-year survival was 84% and remained stable at 82% from 35 months after diagnosis and onwards. Modified Ross Heart Failure Class 4 at the time of diagnosis was the most important risk factor for death during childhood (HR 12.5, 95% CI 4.4 to 35.9). Furthermore, diagnosis in the neonatal period (HR 4.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 12.0), severe tricuspid valve regurgitation (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.0), severe right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (HR 3.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 7.7) and a patent ductus arteriosus (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 6.0) at the time of diagnosis were univariately associated with death. Multivariable analysis showed that presentation with Heart Failure Class 4 and a ventricular septal defect is the strongest predictor of death in childhood and adolescence. Patients with Ebstein's anomaly presenting with Heart Failure Class 4 and a ventricular septal defect have a high risk of death during childhood.